Online programs, both remote and hybrid, are capturing a wider share of higher education across the world. Much of the growth in recent years was driven by the COVID-19 pandemic, which forced campuses to close suddenly and switch to remote classes. But many students, especially those trying to balance work with study, are gravitating toward online learning because of its greater convenience and accessibility compared with traditional classroom instruction. Indeed, new McKinsey research finds that most higher education students want to continue to incorporate at least some aspects of online learning into their education. However, a significant share of students are dissatisfied with the online experiences their universities offer, signaling that higher education institutions could benefit by evolving their online learning models.
About our research
In April 2022, McKinsey surveyed more than 7,000 students across 17 countries: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Italy, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Our goal was to ascertain and analyze students’ preferences and satisfaction with online learning. To give a holistic view, our survey covered eight components: target students and demographics, satisfaction with college and learning experience, the importance of attributes for ideal online education, attribute performance for ideal online education, modality preferences, reasons for those preferences, impediments to online education, and post-COVID-19 trends. The eight components encompass 24 attributes of online learning experiences.
To ascertain which learning models higher education students prefer and why, as well as what they find satisfying about online education and which elements of the online learning experience they value most, we surveyed 7,000 students across 17 countries in the Americas, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East (see sidebar “About our research”). The research covers eight dimensions of the online learning experience encompassing 24 attributes, thereby providing a broad view of what higher education students want (Exhibit 1).
This article outlines our findings and offers a three-step action plan that higher education institutions can use to build and improve their online learning programs. Our aim is to help these institutions deliver better experiences and, we hope, outcomes for the students they serve.
What students value—and don’t value—in online learning
All students we surveyed had moved to online classes during the pandemic, and almost 65 percent of them said they want aspects of their learning experience to remain virtual. Even in France, which had the lowest share, more than half of students said they wanted some learning elements to remain virtual.
Students say they appreciate the flexibility and convenience. When asked to rank, in order of preference, 11 learning features that should remain or become virtual, students identified these as the top three: recording classes and making them available to watch later, easy access to online study materials, and flexibility that enables students to work and study.
On the flip side, many students still hesitate to enroll in fully remote programs, and students globally cited these top-three reasons: fear of becoming more distracted by studying online, getting bored if the learning experience is not motivating, and lacking discipline to complete the online program. Although these perceptions may in part be preconceived, they seem to indicate that for a segment of students, online programs have not been able to generate an engaging learning experience (Exhibit 2).
Social aspects also shape attitudes toward in-person, hybrid, and fully remote models. Students who prefer hybrid learning say they like the combination of flexibility and peer-to-peer interactions, whereas students who prefer in-person learning say it offers them more support and peer-to-peer opportunities. In 80 percent of the countries surveyed, students said the top reason they prefer face-to-face education is that getting help from instructors is easier through in-person rather than online learning.
Room to improve
Notably, our research shows that students’ satisfaction with online learning at their universities varies significantly across countries (Exhibit 3). When asked whether they would be less or more likely to recommend their university to a friend or family member, students from the Americas were much more inclined than students in other regions to make the recommendation. That finding does not necessarily indicate that educational institutions in countries where students are more dissatisfied offer a poor learning experience, but it could signal that, in general, they are not meeting students’ expectations, which vary based on cultural aspects, previous education, etcetera.
Our research suggests that higher education institutions can increase their online learning, identifying a correlation between higher satisfaction levels and growth in online learning.1Growth rates were calculated from public databases, not McKinsey survey data. The two countries in our survey with the largest growth in their online higher education student base—the United States and Brazil—had relatively higher levels of student satisfaction, on average, than other nations. This finding suggests that in some countries, educational institutions have generally been able to develop online-program experiences that both attract and engage students.
Core attributes that matter
Key differences among regions
Across the Americas, students in general placed a greater importance on online learning attributes such as skills certification, omnichannel online experiences, and pre-course readiness-assessment and competency leveling. In the United States and most European countries, students said they enjoy studying independently, taking asynchronous classes, and having an intelligent virtual-support platform. In contrast, students in Brazil, Mexico, and Peru value more personalized support, such as a coach to help them navigate school, career, and personal issues. Students in Chile, Italy, Peru, Saudi Arabia, and Spain highly valued having university support in finding internships.
To help higher education institutions evolve and create more satisfying online programs, we asked students to rank 24 attributes that shape their online learning experiences. Despite important nuances within some regions (see sidebar “Key differences among regions”), three tenets of successful online programs emerged:
- The basics still matter. Features that have always informed the learning experience—such as timely content, course structure, and faculty relevance—are very important for students in every country we surveyed. For instance, students in 16 of the 17 countries said that having a very well-organized online course with a clear path and a step-by-step guide to achieving their goals was among their five most important elements (Exhibit 4).
- Expensive features are not necessarily valued. Online attributes that are expensive to implement, such as virtual reality (VR), simulations, and sophisticated visual content, are not ranked highly by most students. This finding could indicate that educational institutions and students are still figuring out how to use those technologies effectively. Nevertheless, investment in them is growing. By one estimate, the global market for education VR was set to increase from $6.37 billion in 2021 to $8.66 billion in 2022.2“$32.9 billion worldwide virtual reality in education industry to 2031: Identify growth segments for investment,” Business Wire, June 9, 2022. Networking elements, such as “peer-to-peer learning in online settings” and “institution- or student-led networking” also ranked in the bottom quartile of importance across most countries.
- Student age and program type do not significantly influence the perception of online learning experiences’ quality. Our survey found that what students value most in online learning did not vary significantly across age groups, field of study, or level of education (undergraduate versus graduate). Although small variations exist, the consistency of perceptions across groups within each geography can guide institutions as they develop learning experiences, with less need to customize them for particular student constituencies.
Successfully developing or evolving an online program often begins with finding out what students like about all the programs a university offers.
Designing an engaging online experience for students
In our work with higher education institutions, we have identified three steps that help them successfully transform their online education programs to boost student satisfaction and engagement.
Listen to students, set transformation goals, and evaluate the broader online learning landscape. Successfully developing or evolving an online program often begins with finding out what students like about all the programs a university offers: hybrid, fully remote, and in-person. Guided by the 24 attributes from our survey, institutions can canvass their students to ascertain the specific areas where online programs are gaining high marks and those that underperform. In our experience, this type of analysis also allows institutions to learn more about the types of students who gravitate toward different learning models, and to identify which groups of students are more likely to enroll in online learning programs.
In addition to compiling a comprehensive dataset of student preferences, institutions can collaborate with other internal stakeholders to determine their target transformation goals—for example, increasing retention, completion, or employability rates. They also can assess how they currently perform on those specific goals compared with other online education providers.
- Combine core attributes of an online program with differentiating elements. Once institutions have set specific goals, they can then strategically evaluate which features to target as they enhance the value of their online offerings. Asking four specific questions can help in this process:
- Are there alternatives to adding or enhancing a feature?
- How complex would it be to design and implement this component?
- What are the relative costs and benefits of adding or evolving the new element?
- How will this undertaking distinguish the institution from other online education providers?
- Design an action plan and governance structure for implementation and adoption. Once institutions decide which features to add or evolve, they can design an action plan pegged to six criteria: scale, talent, regulation, customization, speed to market, and investment (Exhibit 5). This process often starts with identifying and prioritizing quick wins that will have a high impact on students, are easy to implement, and do not require substantial new investments. Institutions can then establish an implementation strategy by analyzing which initiatives to outsource and which to build with internal capabilities. They can also assemble a team whose members have complementary roles, with the aim of breaking down silos and ensuring that initiatives account for the entire online student experience and are fully adopted by instructors.
Our research findings are clear. Most higher education students who were forced into remote classes during the pandemic want aspects of their education to remain virtual. Many, however, are reluctant to enroll in fully online programs, and some are dissatisfied with the online experiences their universities offer. Institutions can ask their students what they do or do not find satisfying about all learning models. Then they can design and implement strategies to ensure that their online programs deliver better experiences and, ultimately, better outcomes for students.
Felipe Child is a partner in McKinsey’s Bogotá office, Marcus Frank is a partner in the São Paulo office, Jonathan Law is a senior partner in the Southern California office, and Jimmy Sarakatsannis is a senior partner in the Washington, DC, office.
The authors wish to thank Brenda Affeldt and Mariana Lef for their contributions to this article.
Explore a career with us
When asked to rank, in order of preference, 11 learning features that should remain or become virtual, students identified these as the top three: recording classes and making them available to watch later, easy access to online study materials, and flexibility that enables students to work and study.What do students like about online learning? ›
- Variety of programs and courses: From traditional full-time to a flexible hybrid or completely online programs, your options are endless. ...
- Lower total costs: Online programs can be a more affordable. ...
- Convenience and flexibility: As an online student, you can study anytime anywhere.
Online courses teach students how to manage their time better since the student bears the responsibility of engaging with the course instead of simply showing up to class on an assigned day and time. As a result, students not only gain knowledge from the coursework, but they also sharpen their time management skills.How effective is online learning in higher education? ›
Another study has found that providing required courses online helps students graduate more quickly, often because in-person versions of the courses are full or unavailable. Students in general are also at least somewhat more interested in learning online now than they were before the pandemic.What are the benefits of online learning for high school students? ›
- The truth is, not all students are able to reach their full potential in traditional brick-and-mortar schools. ...
- Work at Your Own Pace. ...
- Enjoy a more flexible schedule. ...
- Early graduation. ...
- Customized Workspace. ...
- Fewer Distractions. ...
- Safe Learning Environment.
- Flexibility. One of the most appealing aspects of online learning is the flexibility it offers. ...
- Move at your own pace. ...
- Personalized learning. ...
- Pursue passions outside of the classroom.
Scientists looking at the effectiveness of distance learning found that in some studies, distance education students performed slightly better in exams and grades than traditional classroom students, but that overall the average performance outcomes weren't that different.What are the 3 main advantages of eLearning? ›
- Reduced Costs. One of the most obvious benefits of eLearning is a reduction in costs when compared to traditional training methods. ...
- Multimedia Materials. ...
- Sensory Engagement. ...
- More Customization. ...
- Course Correction. ...
- Speed. ...
- Learner Satisfaction. ...
- Data and Analytics.
Online courses allow students to learn at their own pace on their own schedule, which is an approach to studying known as asynchronous learning. This format empowers students to take notes, review lectures, and go over other course materials in a way that works best for them.Why is e learning important in higher education? ›
E-learning in higher education has been known to improve productivity, augment focus and thereby, provide better academic results. In fact, as per research, students can boost their retention rates by as much as 25-60% through e-learning.
In particular, students were physically and mentally affected by the lockdown and the shift from physical person-to-person classrooms to virtual learning (online classes). This increased the prevalence of psychological stress, anxiety, and depression among university students.What are some advantages and disadvantages of online learning? ›
|Flexibility||Lack of face-to-face interaction|
|Convenience||Difficulty staying motivated|
|Cost-effectiveness||Limited access to resources and support|
|Access to a wider range of programmes and course offerings||Technical difficulties|
They may also miss face-to-face interactions with fellow students. For some students, this lack of social interaction – and the accompanying need to be self-motivated to get their work done – can lead to feelings of isolation.Why online school is better for mental health? ›
Learning from home may allow students to learn in a more comfortable environment. Students who experience bullying, anxiety, discrimination, or harassment may find that online learning benefits their mental health.Why is school better than online learning? ›
They also learn social and emotional skills at school, get healthy meals and exercise, mental health support and other services that cannot be easily replicated online.”What are the effects of online learning to senior high school students? ›
Results showed that the online learning self-efficacy and the academic motivation of the students were high. Moreover, a significant relationship was found between online learning self-efficacy and the academic performance of senior high school students.Why online learning is more comfortable? ›
Convenience and Flexibility
Online students can plan study time around the rest of their day, instead of the other way around. Students can work at their convenience, which makes balancing job and family commitments with education possible.
The majority of studies have shown that retention rates for online students are much higher than for traditional, in-person students. Online learning gives more access to the students, which means they are more likely to finish the online course or program.Do students struggle with online learning? ›
Some kids have trouble with online classes because they lack the structure that in-person school traditionally provides. Additionally, students who have issues with anxiety, attention, or learning challenges may struggle to adapt to the different expectations and format of online classes.Is online learning better or worse? ›
Online learning can be just as good for students if not better than in-person classroom education. Studies have shown that overall, student satisfaction with online learning is high. Of those assessed, 94% said it has or will have a positive return on their investment.
- E-learning Fully Adjusts to Your Needs. Online studying is designed to accommodate everyone's needs. ...
- Reduced Cost. ...
- Remote Approach To Various Classes. ...
- Transfer Credits & Commuting. ...
- Instant Career Advancement. ...
- Quick Delivery. ...
- Scalability. ...
- Consistency & Teacher Scarcity.
Design techniques that make elearning truly effective include: Learner-centric design. Intrinsic feedback. Delayed feedback.What are 3 benefits of web based teaching and learning? ›
- Online Classes Are Convenient. The first obvious advantage of online classes is the sheer convenience factor. ...
- Online Classes Are Flexible. ...
- Online Classes Are More Affordable. ...
- Online Classes Foster More Interaction. ...
- Online Classes Unlock More Learning Opportunities.
The main difference between eLearning and online learning is the amount of interaction. Students and instructors interact more during online learning, while eLearning is more self-paced.How is online learning different from face-to-face learning for school? ›
Type of Learning Content
Face-to-face learning methods usually only involve traditional learning materials such as textbooks and lecture notes. An online learning session is more interactive in comparison, with many different types of training.
On-Time Delivery! To sum up, face-to-face learning is better than online education because it offers experiences, skills, and relationships that are not available in online learning. Besides, some courses require the physical presence of a student, while others do not.Why is online eLearning important? ›
E-Learning provides scalability which helps in providing training. All students can receive the same type of syllabus, study materials, and train through E-Learning. Through E-Learning, you can save time, and money and reduced transportation costs. so, E-Learning is cost-effective compared to traditional learning.Why is eLearning important for the future? ›
Research demonstrates, on average, students learning online retain 25% to 60% of material, compared with only 8% to 10% in a classroom. Additionally, online learning allows students to learn at their own pace, requiring 40% to 60% less time to study than in a traditional classroom setting.What is student engagement in online learning? ›
In the context of education, engagement can be defined as a measure of a student's participation in the learning process. This includes their interaction and cooperation with the teacher and classmates.What happened to students during online learning? ›
Students in the online sections did demonstrably worse on every assignment and exam; even with mandatory attendance and cameras on. We found a grade drop of about a quarter of a letter grade. For perspective, other studies have found to make up that gap a student would need a tutor.
How successful are students in online college courses compared to students taking face to face classes? ›
Success rates tend to be higher in face-to-face classes. In Fall 15, face-to-face classes had a success rate of 69% versus only 60% in online classes, a gap of 9%. However, this gap has been decreasing, with only a 3% gap in success rates in Fall 19 (70% in face-to-face versus 67% online).What are the pros and cons of online learning essay? ›
In conclusion, online classes offer several advantages, including flexibility, cost savings, and access to resources. However, they also come with certain disadvantages, such as isolation, technical difficulties, lack of structure, and reduced interaction.How does online learning affect student performance? ›
This support can be emotional, behavioral, academic, or physical interaction. The increased use of online learning makes students rely on technology instead of interacting and communicating with others. It decreases the growth of communication skills and results in increased social isolation.What are 10 advantages and disadvantages of Internet? ›
|Advantages of Internet||Disadvantages of Internet|
|People would gain knowledge and obtain loads of information about services.||It leads to the insecurity of information and data loss.|
|It permits online payments and digital marketing.||It has a bigger Workload and Complex Designing.|
Common distractions for college students include technology, work, and family. As an online student, your classroom is often your home, and these distractions may seem nearly impossible to avoid. Social media and texts ping you with notifications, and the temptation to respond can pull at your attention.How does online learning cause isolation? ›
This experience can also be isolating emotionally and physically. Students might spend much time studying online at their computers without benefiting from social connections and community throughout the day. This isolation can increase vulnerability to mental issues such as depression, anxiety, and stress.Is online learning a social problem? ›
When helping people to improve the learning environment, the Internet brings about lots of social issues, such as unfair access to education, cultural issues of the Internet in classrooms, un- adapted educational system, un-comprehensive development of learners, and loss of rights and so on.Why online school is better for anxiety? ›
First, online schools allow students to work in familiar environments. This can help put students at ease and make it easier for them to handle difficulties or frustrations with school material. Additionally, without social stressors to worry about, students can focus all of their attention on learning.Does online learning help students with social anxiety? ›
While social anxiety is treatable, it often cannot be cured. It is a chronic condition that can last for years or even be a lifelong disorder. So for some students, it might be necessary to be removed from a school setting. For those students, online education is the perfect alternative.Does online school reduce stress? ›
Online Education = Less Stress
Online education is less stressful because of the natural flexibility built into the programs. There's no waking up for 7am classes or rushing through traffic to get to class on time. The programs are designed to be flexible, which allows students to learn at their own pace.
For some people, online programs are easier because they offer a flexible schedule. In addition, people with great time management skills and a sense of responsibility can excel in online classes. However, online education may be more challenging for those who enjoy learning in a classroom environment.How is school better than online school? ›
Teaches Better Responsibility
It doesn't take much work to roll out of bed and log on to an online learning platform. It takes far more work to arrive on time, properly dressed, to an in-person class. Students gain more responsibility skills when they attend class in person.
- Become a role model for student interest. ...
- Get to know your students. ...
- Use examples freely. ...
- Use a variety of student-active teaching activities. ...
- Set realistic performance goals. ...
- Place appropriate emphasis on testing and grading. ...
- Be free with praise and constructive in criticism.
- Learn According to Your Learning Style. Online learning is directed by you, the student, and is easily tailored to your learning style. ...
- Use Flexibility to Your Advantage. ...
- Enjoy a Comfortable Environment. ...
- Choose Enrollment Options for Your Lifestyle. ...
- Get Useful Skills for the Future.
Many offline courses struggle to maintain student interest throughout the semester. According to the Research Institute of America, this is not the case with eLearning. On the other side, online courses have increased student retention rates by anywhere from 25–60%.How has online learning affected students mental health? ›
The unprecedented shutdown of classroom learning caused undue stress, low levels of social inclusion and low satisfaction with school for many — and mental health issues for some, according to a new study led by researchers at the University of California, Davis.How students and teachers feel about online learning? ›
In a random sample of 1,008 undergraduates who began their Spring 2020 courses in-person and ended them online, 51% of respondents said they were very satisfied with their course before the pandemic, and only 19% were very satisfied after the transition to online learning (Means and Neisler, 2020).Why do kids love online school? ›
Students Learn at their Own Pace
They can take extra time with subjects that are more difficult for them. Kids who excel can move ahead to the next lesson when they are ready – they don't have to complete busy work while they wait for the rest of the class to catch up.
The Advantages of Face to Face Learning in the Classroom
You can access more information and richer understanding through teacher and other students' body language and voice. You have the opportunity to connect with, problem-solve, and network with other students from a wide range of backgrounds.
Out of 81 eligible students, 75.31% of students responded to the survey. They were less interested in their studies in the second “online” semester (p=0.05). Students expressed dissatisfaction with the quality of online classes (p=0.03). Academic life fulfillment was also affected (p=0.02).
75% of students feel more confidence joining online learning that face to face in class. That's why 60% of students think online learning can improve high quality of learning. And 70% of the teacher always accomodate their students in learning.What is the positive effect of online learning as a teacher? ›
Online learning solutions provide much-needed effectiveness for teachers, allowing them to maximize the potential for individual learning curves and styles within the classroom. Many online learning solutions account for self-paced learning and allow students and teachers to work together to meet scheduled targets.What are the pros and cons of online school? ›
|Pros of Online Learning||Cons of Online Learning|
|Flexibility||Less Social Interaction|
|Affordability||Limited Course Availability|
|Individualization||Requires High Degree of Self Discipline|
More Comfortable Learning Environment
The most visible difference between classroom learning and online learning is each mode's physical environment, the latter of which is typically more comfortable. Online learning allows students to seek an education at their convenience and in the setting of their choosing.
More Social Interaction and Collaboration:
The traditional education model allows students to interact with each other in and outside of school. But those are mainly face-to-face or telephonic interactions. Online learning model allows further interaction by providing an online platform for discussions.
Traditional classes are not as flexible as online classes because you have to stay consistent and attend courses in the required schedule. However, traditional learning might be better if you struggle with keeping pace in an online class.Is virtual schooling as good as in person classes? ›
Online courses require you to spend time learning from virtual teaching software, watching video instruction, or attending in-person classes as well as independent time completing coursework. Virtual learning is more effective for most students than in-person instruction.